Tuesday, August 9, 2016

Veeragallu - The Hero Stones of Karnataka

by Karishma Shah

Hero worship is a popular theme across mainstream Indian cinema. Films typically portray heroes as a saviour of the masses, someone who is willing to sacrifice himself for the greater good.

Such morals and sentiments may seem misplaced in the modern world, but between the 5th and 13th centuries AD, these sacrificial qualities were worthy of commemoration. Memorial stones were erected to immortalise those who selflessly pledged their life for the protection of women, village men and property.

Hero stones (called veeragallu in Kannada) are found all over India. These ornate stones are spread all over Karnataka; many are also found in the neighbouring states of Maharashtra, Tamil Nadu and Andhra Pradesh. 
A three panel hero stone at the Kedareshvara temple, Shimoga dist. Karnataka.
Image courtesy: Wikimedia commons
A Hero stone is divided into three sections: the lower portion gives details of the hero and his act of sacrifice (fighting the enemy with a sword or a bow, the army, cattle, or a damsel in distress). The middle panel shows the hero being carried to heaven by angel, and the highest panel depicts him sitting in front of a God, generally represented by the Shiva Linga.

Some have 5 or 7 panels too:

5 panel hero stone with old Kannada inscription
Image courtesy: Wikimedia commons
They often carry inscriptions displaying a variety of adornments, including bas relief panels, frieze, and figures on carved stone. Usually they are in the form of a stone monument and may have an inscription at the bottom with a narrative of the battle.

The classification of hero stones is based on the event for which the sacrifice was made. The Karnataka Itihasa Academy has a wonderful section with photos of hero stones. Dr. Devarakonda Reddy, historian and cultural expert, has published a classification of hero stones:

1. Attack on Forts
These depict war scenes with soldiers riding on elephants and horses. Some have a fort wall etched in them. The Begur veergallu (pictured below) is the most notable and can be found at the Bangalore museum.
Begur veeragallu, Bangalore Museum. Photo credit: Karnataka Itihasa Academy

2. Ooralivu (Defending the village)
A hero must be ready to defend the village from enemy attacks at any given time.

3. Gadi Kalaga (Defending borders)
Border disputes among neighbouring villages were common. Defending their territory from encroachment was an honourable way to go.
Photo credit: Dr Devarakonda Reddy
4. Go Grahana (Defending cattle)
Cattle was an indicator of wealth, and cattle lifting was a common practice with the kings of ancient India, as with the chiefs of ancient Greece. In the Mahabharata, the theft of cattle by Duryodhana was regarded as an insult, leading to the Battle of Viratnagar. The hero stones commemorate the men who defended such capture or theft of cattle.
Go Grahana, Hassan Museum
Photo Credit: Dr Devarakonda Reddy
4. Pendirudeyurchu, Penbuyyall (Savior of Women)
These commemorate heroes who sacrificed themselves to protect the dignity of women being assaulted by the enemies.
Protecting women's modesty
Photo Credit: Dr Devarakonda Reddy
5. Bete (Hunting)
Hunting was a very popular recreational game in Karnataka for royalty; and killing a wild beast such as a tiger or wild boar was no mean feat. Dogs were trained to corner the boars, and accompanied the men on these hunts. They hunted deer, crocodiles and defended themselves from a bear attack.

The Atakur inscription (939 AD) is unique, commemorating the death of the favorite hound of a grief stricken king (the hound died fighting a wild boar). Melagani located in Mulbagal taluk, Kolar,  has two memorial stones of 10th century erected for heroic endeavor of two hounds namely Loga and Dhalaga. Loga killed 70 boars and Dhalaga 50 boars.
Handi Bete (Wild Boar)
Photo Credit: Dr Devarakonda Reddy
Huli Bete (Tiger)
Photo Credit: Dr Devarakonda Reddy
If you are visiting Karnataka, a great place to see these stones is Agrahara Bachhali, where they are housed in a temple-like enclosure. Make a day trip from Mysore, which is very close.

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